Faculty of Engineering
Aeronautical Engineering Department
The department offers the following program consisting of 150 credits to be taken over a period of 10 semesters (~ 5 years) to obtain a B. Sc. degree in aeronautical engineering, these courses are distributed as:
Sets, relations, functions, inequalities and absolute value, limits, continuity, derivatives of algebraic and trigonometric functions, implicit differentiation, chain rules, related rates, applications, the equation of the tangent to the curve at a point, differentials and approximations, increasing and decreasing functions, the curve concavity upwards and downwards, maxima and minima, curve sketching and the mean value theorem. Integration: indefinite and definite integrals, application to area under the curve, area between two curves, volume of solids of revolution.
Methods of integration by partial fractions, by successive reduction formula, transcendental functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, logarithmic differentiation, inverse trigonometric functions, hyperbolic functions, inverse hyperbolic functions, differentiation and integration of transcendental functions, L’Hospital’s rule, inequalities, complex number. Partial differentiation: functions of two or more variables, derivatives of functions of several variables, geometric meaning of partial derivatives, implicit differentiation, the chain rule ( first and second derivatives ), related rates, total differentiation, approximations, critical points, relative maxima and minima, the method of Lagrange multipliers, Multiple integration, definition of double integral, relation between double integrals and volumes, evaluation of double integrals, change of order of integration, evaluation of area, density and mass by double integrals, use of polar coordinates, surface area.
Vector analysis, div, grad, curl, Green’s, Gauss and Stokes theorems and their applications. Linear algebra, matrices and their applications, N-Euclidean space, vector spaces, subspaces, linear dependence and independence of vectors, bases, dimensions of vector spaces. Matrices, algebra of matrices, rank of a matrix, linear transformation, system of linear equations, equivalent and similar matrices, eigen-values and eigen-vectors.
Ordinary differential equations: differential equations of first order and first degree, different forms, non-linear differential equations of first order, linear differential equations with constant coefficients: homogeneous case, method of variation of parameters, method of undetermined coefficient: method of Laplace transforms, simultaneous differential equations: solution of differential equations in series, gamma, beta functions, Bessel functions, modified Bessel functions, Legendre polynomials, spherical harmonics, hyper-geometric function.
Wave equations, beats, doppler effect, modulation, pulses, and wave packets, sound: definition, fundamental tone, note, sound of specified pitch, harmonics, overtone, intensity, pitch and quality, velocity of sound in air, velocity of transverse and longitudinal vibrations in wires and rods, kundt’s tube and the sonometre, echoese, acoustics-reverberation. Optics: plane surfaces and prisms, spherical mirrors, the electromagnetic character of light, absorption and scattering, the polarization of light and interference.
Electrostatics, electric fields around conductors, electromagnetic induction and Maxwell’s equations, alternating current circuits. Photoelectric effect, Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom, radio-active decay law derivation.
Experiments about sound, light, electricity, magnetism, heat and electro-chemical conversion.
Measurements and SI units, chemical equations and stechiometry structures of atoms and periodic relationships, chemical compounds, the gaseous state, solutions-electrolytes and non-electro-layers, acids and bases, thermochemistry, chemical equilibrium, ionic equilibria I and II, organic chemistry.
Some experiments related to GS115 course.
Introduction to digital computers, computer hardware organization, memory, processing unit, input and output units. Fortran language-introduction to FORTRAN, constants, variables, built-in functions, arithmetic expressions, executable and non-executable statements, arithmetic assignment statements. Numerical input/output-READ statement, WRITE statement, FORMAT statement (I, F, E types of format), elementary program organization-STOP statement, PAUSE statement, END statement, insertion of comments in Fortran program. Preparing the program-the program package, Fortran deck, data deck. Control statements, GO TO statement, arithmetic IF statement, Logical IF statement, DO statement, CONTINUE statement, nested DO loops. Flow charts. Arrays and subscripted variables, arrays, subscripted variables, DIMENSION statement, array input/output, implied DO loop. Character input/output-permissible Fortran character, A-type format. Case studies.
(STATICS) 1. Statics of Particles: Forces in Plane, Addition of Vectors, Resultant of Several Forces, Rectilinear Components of a Force. 2. Equilibrium of Particle as: Newton’s Law, Free Body Diagram, Forces in Space, Addition of Concorrent Forces in Space, Equilibrium of Particles in Space. 3. Statics of Rigid Bodies: Vector Product, Moment of a Force about a Point and about a line. 4. Equivalent Couples and Equivalent Forces: External and Internal Forces, Moment of a Couple, Equivalent Couples, Reduction of a System of Forces into one Force and one Couple. 5. Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies: Equilibrium in two Dimensions, Support Reaction, Statically Determinate and Indeterminate Problems, Equilibrium of Two and Three Dimensions. 6. Analysis of Structures: Trusses and Hinged Frames in Plane. 7. Center of Gravity in Two Dimensions: Centroid of Areas and Lines, Composite Section, Centroid by Integration. 8. Moment of Inertia: Moment of Inertia of Composite Areas, Product of Inertia, Principal Moment of Inertia.
Orthographic Projection-Projection of a Point in One of Four Quadrants on the Principal Plane of Projection, Projection of a Straight line on the 3 Planes of Projection, Its True Length, Inclination and Traces. The Plane as Defined by The Intersection of two lines, Plane as Defined by its Traces , Kinds of Planes-Normal and Oblique, to Find the Inclination of The Plane, The Reverse to Fined Traces of The Plane of Inclination to Horizontal and Vertical Planes are Known. Line of Intersection of Planes, Line of Intersection of a Straight Line and a Plane. Projection of Solids Situated in Inclined Planes, Intersection of Solids Such as Two Cones, Spheres, Prisms, etc. Development of Solids, Intersection of Solids Such as the Roofs with Chimneys, Other Problems Used in Engineering Practice Such as Governors etc. The Spiral and Ruled Surfaces. Shade and Shadow, Proof of Dandalan’s Theory For Desargus and Their Practical Applications.
Introduction: Definitions, Conventions and General Rule- Instruments and Their Uses- Some Geometrical Constructions: Polygons, Parallel Lines & Tangents- Projections: Theory, Types of Projections, One View Projection (Isometric), Multi-view Projection, First and Third Angle Projection, Applications Including Missing Lines- Sectioning: Complete Section, Half-Section , Revolved Section, Partial Section, Applications.
Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, Engineering Materials (Iron and Steel), Production of Iron-Pig Iron, Cast Iron, Malleable Iron, Wrought Iron, Casting -Sand Casting Process, Properties of Sand, Modeling, Pouring, Welding-Oxy-Acetylene Welding, Rolling Cold Rolling, Sheet Rolling, Forging-Blacksmithing, Drop Forging, Press Forging, Hammers and Process, Extrusion-Direct and Indirect, Metal Cutting-Fundamentals of Metal Cutting, Cutting Angles, Turning, Tool Shape, Lathe, Main Parts, Operation.
1. Dynamics of Particles: I- Kinematics of Particles (Rectilinear Motion, Curvilinear Motion, Motion Relative to a frame in translation). II- Kinetics of Particles (Newton’s Law of Motion, Energy Methods, Impulse and Momentum Methods). 2. System of Particles : Motion of Mass Center, Linear & Angular Momentum of System of Particles, Conservation of Momentum. 3. Dynamics of Rigid Bodies in Plane Motion: I-Kinematics of Rigid Bodies (Translation, Rotation about a Point, General Motion, Instantaneous Center of Rotation, Dependent Motion, Motion Relative to Frame in Translation), ii- Kinetics of Rigid Bodies (Force and Acceleration, Energy Methods, Impulse and Momentum Method). 4. Introduction to Mechanical Vibration: Free Vibration of Particles, Free Vibration of Rigid Bodies.
Are complimentary courses designed to introduce the student to the basic patterns of scientific English at the introductory stage and thereafter deals with more advanced materials. Each covers:
(a) Intensive reading of passage containing material to student needs with comprehension questions, contextual references, vocabulary exercises and affixation.
(b) The study of scientific vocabulary which includes use of dictionary, spelling rules and affixation.
(c) Revision and study of basic English verb tenses, active and passive.
(d) Description of the laboratory experiments.
(e) Study and use of the passive voice in scientific technical English.
(f) Ing form;
nouns. The English noun phrases, relative clauses, delotlon
of relative, relation in active and passive voice.
Review to Arabic courses taker, in high school including construction of Arabic sentence, spelling and punctuation.
Projections : Projections of Simple Machine Parts, Sectioning, Advanced Sectional views, Half Sectional views, Multiple Sectioning, Auxiliary views, Free Hand Sketching, Principles of Sketching.
Elementary Theory of the Structure of Metals, space lattice , cryst-metallic structure. Mechanism of crystallization, gray boundary, trans-crystallination and intercrystallination fracture, crystal structure of ingots and castings. Deformation and anealing processes: hot and cold working, mechanism of plastic deformation, slip and twinning in crystals, dislocation etc., recovery, recrystallization and grain growth.
Introduction, definitions, units, equation of state for ideal gases, properties of pure substances, the first law of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible process, the second law of thermodynamics, Carnot cycle, entropy, reversible steady flow process, power and refrigeration cycles.
Plastic working of metals, rolling, forging, extrusion, drawing, sheet metal forming, press work, types of presses and design of dies, welding-electric arc welding, gas welding, electric resistance welding, argon welding, thermal stresses, gas cutting technology and equipment.
Heat and temperature, modes of heat transfer, combined mechanisms, general equation of heat transfer, overall coefficients, mean temperature difference, electrical analogy. Conduction, Fourier’s Poisson’s and Laplace’s equations for coduction, steady state one dimensional conduction simple and composite slabs and in cylinders, shape factors, extended surfaces, Newtonian heating and cooling. Convention, natural forced convention, Nusselt Prandtl,Rynolds and Grashoff numbers, natural convention equation, forced convention flow inside tube, laminar and turbulent flow equation,. Radiation, absorption, reflection and transmission, black and gray bodies, Kirchhoff’s law, Stefan-Boltzman’s laws, radiation intensity, and total emissive power, radiation between black and gray bodies, combined radiation with convection and conduction.
Mechanisms velocity and acceleration, evaluation of velocity by instantaneous center and relative velocity methods, velocity and acceleration diagrams, gear trains, simple and be-cyclic, torque transmitted in gear trains, balancing of rotating masses, single and multiple masses in one plane , several masses in different planes, gyroscope, effect of gyroscopic couple, friction applications, clautches, belt drives.
Thermodynamic relations o single component systems, deviations from ideal gas behavior, generalized charts. Mixtures and solutions: properties of component in mixture, ideal gas mixtures, stecheometry. Chemically reactive systems: stoichiometry, energy and free energy of reaction , generalized availability, equilibrium, Gibbs equation for simple chemical systems, the chemical potential, phase equilibrium, chemical reaction equilibrium. Introduction to irreversible thermodynamics: rate equation, coupling phenomena , application to thermoelasticity. Introduction to statistical thermodynamics: Information theory approach.
Kirchhoff's Laws & applications Network theorems applied electromagnetism & magnetic circuits, self & mutual inductance, rise & fall of current in An inductive circuit, capacitance, charging and discharging of capacitors, stored energy, alternating voltages & currents average r.m.s . values phasors, complex notation, R-l-c circuits resonance quality factor, power calculations, principle of operation, equivalent circuit & effenciency of transformers.
Atomic Structure -Types of Bonds, Metallic Bond- Coordination- Crystalline And Amorphous Materials (wood, Plastics, Rubber)- Properties of Materials in Tension, Tests- Strain Measurement Methods- Failure and Fracture of Materials.
Aerodynamics: The atmosphere, Airplane types and components, Generation of aerodynamic forces and moments; Axis systems, Airfoil and wing geometry, General aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils and wings, Viscous effects. Flight mechanics: General meaning of aircraft performance, Elements of aircraft performance, Power effects, Operating limitations, General meaning of equilibrium, General meaning of stability, Requirements to achieve equilibrium effect of C.G. position. Propulsion: Aircraft engine components, Aircraft engine types, Jet fuels, Comparison between jet and piston engines. Structures: Familiarization with the main components of the airplane, and terminology, control surfaces, basic flight instruments, structural configuration, basic materials and manufacturing processes.
Equilibrium, Stress, Strain, Stress-Strain relation, frame and beam under loads, Elastic material, Hooke’s law, normal and shear stresses, Mohr’s circle, shear and moment diagrams, Castigliano’s theorem, compound stresses, determinate and indeterminate structures.
Continuum concept, Fluid properties, Fluid statics, Fundamental equations of fluid mechanics (in differential and integral forms), Streamline and streamtube, Euler and Bernoulli’s equations (with applications), Rotation and strain; vorticity, Stream function, Irrotational flow, Stoke’s theorem, Velocity potential. Vortices: Point, Filament, Boit-Savert law, Helmholtz theorems, Elementary flows: Uniform, Source, Sink, Doublet. Superposition of elementary flows: Rankin body, Circular cylinder (no circulation). Solid body rotation, Introduction to viscous flow.
Review of flow around circular cylinder, Circulation, Flow around circular cylinder with circulation, Kutta-Jaoukowski theory /lift, Thin airfoil theory, Lifting line and lifting surface theories, Panel methods, Aerodynamic interference, Sweep back; delta wing, High lift devices, Twist; additional lift, High alpha effects.
Introduction to air breathing propulsion systems, thermodynamic fundamentals, momentum , thermodynamic cycles of gas turbine engines and their performances, the turbojet engine components and functions, engine non-rotating component aerodynamics and performance, starting problems.
Flight of lighter than and heavier than air, lift, drag, and moment of flight vehicles, general equations of motions of airplanes in free space, different coordinate systems, atmospheric flight, thrust and power required for propeller driven and turbojet driven aircraft systems, level performance, climb, cruise performance, take off and landing, maneuver performance, turning flight, thrust and lift boundaries of aircraft.
Taylor series, roots of nonlinear equations. Solution of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. Solution of simultaneous nonlinear equations. Least square curve fitting and functional approximation. Numerical integration. Solution ordinary differential equations.
Conditions of Technical Report Writer -- Types of Technical Reports from points of view of: Format, Subject, Value, Publicity, Pattern, Method of Presentation -- Consultation of References: Types of References, Evaluation of References, Fetching for References, Referring to References, Utilization of Reference Collection and Presentation of Data -- Analysis and Presentation of Results -- Contents of Elaborated Report -- Technical Translation.
Units and notations-current and voltage-resistance-ohm’s law, power and energy-series and parallel circuits- circuits –network theorems-capacitors-magnetic circuits-inductors-DC instruments-transformers-passive filters-linear wave shaping-tube circuits-semiconductors diode-magnetron-transistors-amplifiers-active filters-multi-vibrators- A/D conversion, logic circuits.
Dynamics of Inviscid Compressible Flow: Second low of thermodynamics: specific heat, speed of sound. Adiabatic and isentropic flows, normal shock waves, oblique shock waves, Prandtl-Meyer function, Shock and expansion waves. Compressible Subsonic and Transonic flows: Thin wing at small (linearized subsonic flow), Transonic flow about wings. Two-Dimensional Subsonic flow Around Thin Airfoil: Linear theory, Buseman theory, Shock-expansion method. Supersonic Flow over Bodies and wings: Linearized equations. Solution method: conical flow, Singularity distribution, Aerodynamic interference. Computational Aerodynamics (introductory material), Hyper Sonic Flow (introductory material).
1.Wind tunnels: Classification of wind tunnels, Subsonic wind tunnels components: Open circuit, Closed circuit. Supersonic wind tunnel components: Blow down indraft, Continuos. 2. Pressure measurement, Absolute pressure, Gauge pressure: Fluid manometers, Pressure transducers. 3. Velocity measurement: Pitot-static tube, Hot-wire anemometer, LASER Doppler Anemometer. 4. Aerodynamic balances, 5. Flow Visualization: Smoke, Dye, Oil, Tufts, Schlieren. 6. Temperature measurement. 7. error source in wind tunnel measurements, test procedures.
Engine rotating components aerodynamics and performance, engine components matching , propellers and performance.
Harmonic motion un-damped free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom system-methods of finding equations of motion of a system-two degrees of freedom systems-types of damping-damped free vibration-Lagrange’s equation-matrix technology-eigen-value and eigen-vectors natural modes of vibrations vibration of continuous system.
Longitudinal, lateral and directional static stability, handling qualities and characteristics of light aircraft, fixed wing aircraft in subsonic flight, maneuvering characteristics of perturbed motion.
1.Principles of Stressed Skin Construction: Materials used, Loads, Fabrication & Structural idealization. 2.Open and Closed thin Walled tubes: Bending, Shear and Torsion, Strain and Displacement, Booms, Applications. 3.Multi-cell tubes: Bending, Torsion & Shear, Shear Variation, Effect of taper, Deflection, Applications. 4.Energy methods: Strain and Complementary energy, Total Potential and its Stationary Values, Applications.
Bending of thin plates which involves both exact and energy method solutions, combined bending and in–plane loading, effect of pre-loading curvature, structural instability: Euler buckling of perfect columns; inelastic buckling; loading of single and multi-cell thin walled tubes and torsion boxes, deflection phenomena.
A crack in structure, the stress at a crack tip, the stress intensity factor, Grifith criterion, sub-critical crack propagation, brittle and ductile fractures, the elastic tip stress field, energy release rate principle, plane strain fracture toughness, fatigue and environmental crack problems, cracks in stiffened sheet structures.
Effect of viscosity on flow around objects: Inviscid and viscid patterns and pressure distribution on circular cylinder, Drag paradoy. Navier-Stoke’s equations for compressible viscous flow: Derivation of the equations, Some exact solution of incompressible flow form of Navier-Stoke’s equations, Emergence of boundary layer concept. Velocity boundary layer equations in incompressible flow-laminar case: Deducing the equations, Flat plate solution (Blasius solution), Boundary layer with pressure gradient, Boundary layer separation, Integral methods. Transition to turbulent boundary layer: Stability of laminar boundary layer, Transition. Two-Dimensional incompressible turbulent velocity boundary layer: Reynold’s shear stress, Approximate solutions, Structure of turbulent boundary layer. Thermal boundary layer: Energy equation, Thermal boundary layer on flat plate.
Introduction to control systems, history of automatic control, mechanical examples of modern control systems; mathematical models of system, differential equations of physical system, linear approximations of physical systems, main rules of Laplace transformation, the transfer function of linear system, block diagram models, signal flow graph models, simulation of control system (particular emphasis given to mechanical and industrial examples). Feedback control system characteristics; open and closed loop control system, sensitivity of control system to parameter variations, control of the transient response of control system, steady state error, the cost of feedback. Performance of feedback control systems; time domain performance specifications, the s-plane root location and the transient response, performance indices, simplification of linear system, mechanical and industrial examples. Stability of linear feedback system: the concept of stability, the Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion, the relative stability of feedback control systems, determination of root location in the s-plane, practical applications in mechanical and industrial examples.
Stresses of loading aircraft, fatigue, rivet and joint stress variation, design operations, design of basic machine elements; shafts, hays, belts, etc., V-n diagram, structural layout drawing, wing design, fuselage, tail, takeoff-landing system design.
Classification of aircraft types, statistical design data, determination of aircraft parameters, estimation of wing loading, thrust/weight ratio determination, aircraft weight estimation, drag estimation, power plant selection, wing position selection, layout of aircraft including under-carriage, weight and balance, design for performance and stability.
Selected experiments in different areas of aeronautical engineering. In due course the students perform experiments during normal courses and have special credit. The following experiments are suggested during the teaching of normal courses:-
1. Strut Loading (AE 214)
2. Plate Vibration Modes (AE 409)
3. Shear Center Determination (AE 412)
4. Sandwich Structures (AE 413)
5. Buckling of Plates and Shells (AE 413)
Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics Area:
1. Characteristics of NACA 0012 (AE 302)
2. Tests of NACA 2412 (AE 302)
3. Wake Traverse behind Airfoil (AE 302)
4. Drag on Circular Cylinder (AE 301 & AE 302)
5. Symmetric Double wedge Airfoil (AE 402)
6. Convergent- Divergent Nozzle (AE 402)
7. Pipe flow and Nozzle Apparatus (AE 301)
8. Solid Body Rotation (AE 301)
9. Flight Demonstration Wind Tunnel (AE 410)
10. Pressure distribution on circular cylinder (AE 302)
Propulsion and Control Area:
1. Engine Testing (AE 305)
2. Longitudinal Stability (AE 450 & AE 411)
3. Transverse Stability (AE 450 & AE 411)
Last Update 8 - 03 - 2015
The official site of the Aeronautical Engineering Department - Faculty of Engineering - UNIVERSITY OF TRIPOLI